GLOSSARY

Our handbook of terms for the most common language and terminology of the Day Spa and Medical Esthetics Spa industry, based on research by SpaFinder and SPALaDonna.

Terms and Definitions

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Part of the blood cell line and formed from the polychromatic normoblast, this cell (8 to 10 microns diameter) loses its nucleus at this stage.
The rapid-onset, short-term initial stage of disease. Contrast with chronic.
Product or treatment that combats or defends against the aging process.
Any variety of natural or synthetic substances that inhibit growth of or destroy microorganisms. Used extensively in treatment of infectious diseases.
1. destructive to or preventing the development of microorganisms. 2. agent that destroys or prevents the development of microorganisms.
Treatments such as massage, facials, body wraps, or hydrobaths that include the application of fragrant essential oils. Different oils are used for different therapeutic benefits.
Sterile; a condition free from germs and any form of life.
The process of properly handling sterilized and disinfected equipment and implements to prevent contamination.
Apparatus for sterilization by steam pressure usually at 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) for a specified length of time.
Disorders or diseases in which the body produces disordered immunological response against itself. Normally the body's immune mechanisms are able to distinguish clearly between what is a normal substance and what is foreign. In autoimmune diseases this system becomes defective and produces antibodies against normal parts of the body to such an extent as to cause tissue injury.
A type of lymphocyte derived from bone marrow stem cells that matures into an immunologically competent cell (under the influence of the bursa of fabricius in the chicken, and the bone marrow in nonavian species); following interaction with antigen, it becomes a plasma cell, which synthesizes and secretes antibody molecules involved in humoral immunity. Also called B lymphocyte.
cell that manufactures antibodies involved in immunity
Body water treatments that use mud or fango, Dead Sea salt, seaweed, enzymes, or peat baths. Many of these treatments originated in ancient Greek and Roman bathhouses. While water treatments were originally used primarily for medicinal purposes, they eventually evolved into relaxation treatments as well.
White blood cell characterized by the presence of blue cytoplasmic granules that become stained by a basophilic dye.
A blue colored cell formed from the division of the pronormoblast this cell (6 to 18 microns diameter) produces polychromatic normoblasts.
One-celled microorganisms with both plant and animal characteristics; also known as microbes. Capable of surviving on living and nonliving matter. Bacteria may be either pathogenic or nonpathogenic.
A fluid-filled or yolk- filled cavity surrounded by a blastoderm.
Primary epithelium formed in early embryonic development of many arthropods when the nuclei migrate to the periphery and undergo superficial cleavage; usually encloses the central yolk mass.
An early stage in the development of an embryo; it consists of a sphere of cells enclosing a fluid-filled cavity (blastocoel).
Described transmission through direct blood-to-blood contact, such as sharing needles or through blood transfusion.
Pathogenic microorganisms present in human blood that can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Treatment in which strips of cloth are soaked in herbal teas and cocooned around the body.
Plant part or extract used in hair or skin products.
A drug prepared from the bacterial toxin botulin, used medically to treat certain muscular conditions and cosmetically to remove wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing facial muscles.
Transmembrane proteins that go from cell to cell and bind to each other.
A protein important in stabilizing cell adherence to avoid abnormal spread of cells.
Cyclin dependent kinase adds phosphate to a protein along with cyclins and is a major control switch for the cell cycle.
The regular sequence of events in the life of a cell, during which the cell grows, prepares for division, duplicates its contents and divides to form two daughter cells.
A part of the immune system that does not involve antibodies and the function of which is carried out mainly by T-cells.
Also called plasma membrane. a semipermeable lipid bi-layer common to all living things.
The rigid outermost layer of the cells found in plants, some protests (type of single- cell organism), and most bacteria. Found in plants composed principally of cellulose. Not found in animal cells.
A lipid component of the intercellular cement within the stratum corneum layer.
A body treatment technique used to improve and smooth the texture of the skin, often facial skin, using a chemical solution that causes the dead skin to slough off and eventually peel off. The regenerated skin is usually smoother and less wrinkled than the old skin.
A lipid component of the stratum corneum.
A proteogly- can found in the dermis.
Long-term or persistent disease. Contrast with acute.
The early mitotic and cytoplasmic divisions of an embryo.
all cells are coated with antigenic substances; each of the more than 160 clusters has a different chemical molecule that coats the surface. Every T and B cell has about 105 molecules on its surface.
Injection of collagen beneath the skin with a fine needle to fill out wrinkles and lines.
A complex series of enzymes in the blood that coats microbes with special molecules making them more susceptible to phagocytosis.
Aibrous tissue that binds together, protects, and supports the various parts of the body; examples are bone, cartilage and tendons.
Transmembrane proteins that permit the flow of ions that cause contraction of the heart muscle and strong contraction of the uterus during labor.
The presence or reasonably anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious material (OPIM) on an item or surface.
A highly cross-linked layer of proteins found in the stratum corneum.
Nerve endings in the subcutaneous tissue of the human finger that detect stretch of connective tissue and send slow continuous signals when stimulated, heat detectors; also known as organ of Ruffini.
Topical cosmetic-pharmaceutical combinations intended to improve health and appearance of skin. Not recognized or subject to review by the US Food and Drug Administration.
Pertaining to the skin (e.g., a skin infection).
Repeating unit that makes up the pattern of biological rhythms.
A protein important in the control of the cell division cycle and mitosis.
A molecule secreted by an activated or stimulated cell (for example, macrophages) that causes chemical immune responses in certain other cells.
The watery fluid of the cell, including the protoplasm, containing food material necessary for growth, reproduction, and self-repair.
In the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, an internal frame- work of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that anchor, organize, and moves organelles and other structures.
A special type of T cell activated during cell-mediated immune responses, that recognizes and destroys virus-infected cells.
Establishment that provides beautifying, relaxing, or pampering experiences that can last an hour or may take a whole day. Can be freestanding or connected to health clubs, hotels, or department stores.
A cell that results after a division of a stem cell. The original cell is called the mother cell/division.
The use of physical or chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy bloodborne pathogens on a surface or item to the point where they are no longer capable of transmitting infectious particles. The surface or item is rendered safe for handling, use, or disposal.
Massage method focusing on aligning the deep layers of muscles and connective tissue (called fascia) through kneading and applying slow, intense pressure. Benefits include improved range of motion and posture, and stress and pain relief.
Tree-like branching of nerve fibers extending from a nerve cell; short nerve fibers that carry impulses toward the cell.
Cells that serve to fix and process cutaneous antigens; they contain large granules named Birbeck granules. Also known as Langerhans cells.
A glycosaminoglycan; a complex carbohydrate in the dermis.
1. Live layer of connective tissue below the epiderms. 2. Contains the collagen and elastin fibers and acts as the main support structure of the skin.
A member of the desmosome family; projects proteins; is calcium dependent, and extends from the plaques that interlock with identical proteins from the adjacent cell.
A member of the demosome family; projects cadherin proteins, is calcium binding and extends from the plaques that interlock with identical proteins from the adjacent cell.
One of the two proteins that make up the plaques in the cell membrane.
1. Structures that assist in holding cells together. 2. Buttonlike plaque serving as an intercellular con- nection containing many complex proteins; can be affected by auto- immune disorders.
General term used to describe a variety of treatments intended to cleanse the body of poisons or toxins.
The second-highest level of decontamination; nearly as effective as sterilization but does not kill bacterial spores; used on hard, nonporous surfaces.
A complex process that reproduces the critical information in each cell for proper functioning and reproduction.
Outer layer of cells of an early embryo (gastrula stage); one of the germ layers, also sometimes used to include tissues derived from the ectoderm.
Leading or conveying away from some organ, for example, nerve impulses conducted away from the brain, or blood conveyed away from an organ; contrasts with afferent.
elastin-type fiber found in the dermis believed to be an intermediate form of elastin.
A method of lasting hair removal that involves the use of electricity or radio wave energy to damage hair follicles. This method can sometimes require some form of pain relief.
The first stage of human life; starts with fertilization of a women’s egg (ovum) by a male’s sperm.
Thermoreceptors that detect cold; found in the skin, conjunctiva of the eye, mucus membranes of lips and tongue, the penis and clitoris, and the fingertips.
Deep primary germ layer of the embryo; gives rise to the linings of the pharynx, respiratory tree, digestive tract, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Cytoplasmic organelle composed of a system of interconnected membranous tubules and vesicles; rough ER has ribosomes attached to the side of the membrane facing the cytoplasm and smooth ER does not. Rough ER functions in protein synthesis while smooth ER functions in lipid synthesis.
Controls that isolate or remove bloodborne pathogens from the workplace; examples include sharps containers, handwashing facilities, eyewash stations, and labels.
White blood cells characterized by the presence of cytoplasmic granules that become stained by an acid (eosin) dye.
Involved in the skin repair process.
1. the outermost layer of skin: A thin, protective layer with many nerve endings. 2. Consists of four layers: the basal layer, the spiny layer, the granular layer and the stratum corneum.
A blistering congenital disease caused by defects in the keratins 5 and 14 in the basal layer.
1. Protective covering on body surfaces, such as the skin, mucous membranes, and lining of the heart; digestive and respiratory organs; and glands. 2. Capable of constant reproduction which lines other tissue.
A cellular tissue covering a free surface (internal and external) or lining a tube or cavity; consists of cells joined by small amounts of cementing substances. Epithelial tissue is classified into types based on how many layers deep it is and the shape of the superficial cells.
Red blood cell that has hemoglobin to carry oxygen from lungs (or gills) to tissues; during their formation in mammals, erythrocytes lose their nuclei, but erythrocytes of other vertebrates retain their nuclei.
Aromatic liquids extracted from flowers, grasses, fruits, leaves, roots, or trees. The oils maintain the odors and tastes, and thus the essence, of the plant they are extracted from.
Treatment that begins with deep cleansing, steam, exfoliation, and professional massage of the face, shoulders, and chest area, followed by special mask that hydrates the skin.
A layer of the ectoderm germ layer that supplies the skin.
Procedure to slough top layer of dead skin cells off the face or body. Dry brush, loofah scrub, and salt glow are among the techniques used in conjunction with ingredients including grape seed, sugar, clay, and salt.
Generic term for treatment of skin in the face that usually includes massaging, cleansing, toning, steaming, exfoliating, and moisturizing.
(fung SHWAY) Chinese art of arranging buildings, objects, and furniture in optimal positions for achieving a harmonic flow of energy between a place and its inhabitants. Believed to influence health, happiness, wealth, and relationships.
(L. fibra, “thread”) a strand of protoplasm produced by a cell and lying within the cell.
A cell that produces protein in the body, such as amino acids and collagen, and originates from the mesechymal tissue. Also known as fibrocyte.
A peptide that stimulates fibroblast to grow fibrocyte.
A cell that is not fully differentiated for it can go forward or backward in life, makes the most abundant protein in the body called collagen, and originates from the mesechymal tissue, also known as fibroblast.
Component of the ectoderm known as the neural crest.
A lipid component of the stratum corneum.
Nerve endings in the skin without myelin sheaths.
A stage of DNA synthesis, the resting cell.
Part of interphase that is the time of active metabolism in the cell cycle; also known as Gap 1.
Part of interphase after the synthesis of DNA and before the start of nuclear division; also known as Gap 2.
Intercellular channels that allow free passage between the cells of ions and small molecules to pass between cells.
The name for an embryo during the gastrulation process.
A process during which the cells migrate to the interior of the blastula and form three germ layers.
In the animal embryo, one of three basic layers (ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm) from which the various organs and tissues arise in the multicellular animal.
Supportive cells closely associated with neurons. glycosaminoglycans: A water- binding substance such as a poly- saccharide (protein and complex sugar) found between the fibers of the dermis with water-binding properties.
Organelle of membranous, hollow sacs arranged in a stack; functions in modifica- tion, storage, and packaging of secretion materials; may be called dictyosome in plants. Also known as the Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex.
White blood cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) bearing granules (vacuoles) in their cytoplasm that stain deeply.
A federal act passed in 1996 outlining federal privacy standards for patients. The act covers access to medical records, notice of privacy practices, limitations of use regarding personal medical information, prohibitions on using patient information for marketing, stronger state laws, confidential communication, and complaint procedures.
Cells that serve as managers and direct the immune response; they also secrete lymphokines.
Binds the basal layer to the basement mem- brane through different types of proteins.
Part of the blood cell line, this multipotential cell can form the white cell series and the red cells and any other cells in the blood.
A proteoglycan found in the dermis.
A proteoglycan found in the dermis.
Treatment using strips of cloth soaked in a heated herbal solution to wrap around the body. It is used for relaxation and said to eliminate impurities and detoxify.
The process of feed- back and regulation that keeps the body in a state of equilibrium within its environment.
Treatment in which smooth heated stones are placed on or used to stroke areas of the body, such as the back, palms, and between the toes. This type of massage is intended to relax tight muscles.
Virus that causes AIDS.
Pertaining to an endocrine secretion.
A glycosaminogly- can that has no protein component that can hold up to 400 times its own weight in water. A hydrating fluid found in the skin; hydrophilic agent with water-binding properties. Also known as sodium hyalurnat.
Chlorine bleach, HOCl.
General term for therapeutic procedures that use water for a variety of purposes, from relaxation to disease treatment. Methods can include Kneipp baths, underwater jet massage, specialized or experience showers, mineral baths, thalassotherapy, and more.
Cosmetic products alleged by manufacturer to create fewer allergic reactions among those who are sensitive. However, no federal standards govern the use of this term.
Becoming immune or the process of rendering a person immune.
General term for fillers consisting of collagen, biologic acids, or synthetic compounds that are injected under the skin to eliminate small wrinkles and plump facial and bodily contours. Results are temporary.
International Spa Association, a professional organization representing all aspects of the spa industry: club spas, cruise ship spas, day spas, destination spas, resort/hotel spas, medical spas, and mineral springs spas.
A pathway used as an inter- mediate signal as part of the DNA signaling cascade.
The major protein made in the epidermis.
Proteins that are made in the skin and hair that resist water and frictions.
A proteoglycan found in the dermis.
Cells composed of keratin; the dominate cell in the epidermis. It is multifunctional but makes proteins and lipids.
Stem cells that do not have a high rate of mitosis but do produce a transient amplifying cell.
Both horny and hyaline, a distinguishing feature of the cells in the granular layer.


Use of concentrated beams of light to permanently remove unwanted hair. Best candidates for the procedure have very fair skin and very dark hair.
An enzyme that accelerates the hydrolysis, or synthesis of fats.
A molecular structure composed of hydrophilic and hydro- phobic components.
A type of white blood cell; a component of the immune system produced by stem cells in the bone marrow. 2. Type of white blood cell which is important to the immune system for its ability to digest foreign invaders.
A molecule secreted by an activated or stimulated lymphocyte that causes physiological changes in certain other cells.
substances that, when released by cytotoxic or killer T cells, cause cell lysis.
1. cytoplasmic, membrane-bounded organelle that contains digestive and hydrolytic enzymes, which are typically most active at the acid pH found in the lumen of lysosomes. 2. cell organ- elle that digests foreign matter considered potentially threatening to the body.
an enzyme capable of dissolving and digesting many types of biochemicals.
Art or teaching of techniques for using cosmetics appropriate to an individual's skin type, style, and age.
Manipulation of tissues, usually manually, to improve health and well-being by relaxing muscles, relieving tension, and improving circulation.
Any facility, usually a day spa, that offers both medical treatments and spa therapies.
Destination or day spa that offers traditional and complementary medical services supervised or administered by medical professionals. A spa may specialize in diagnostic testing, preventive care, cosmetic procedures, or a combination.
Practice of using mental skills to perform such feats as focusing attention on a single object for a long period of time; cultivating compassion, which involves the transforming of negative events; and creating a state of pure awareness of thoughts, emotions, and sensations without reacting. Meditation is said to increase emotional well-being and is being studied for alleged benefits to physical health.
A phago- cytic cell type in vertebrates that performs crucial functions in the immune response and inflammation, such as presenting antigenic epitopes to T cells and producing several cytokines.
A branch of the trigeminal nerve (fifth cranial nerve) that supplies the muscles and skin of the lower part of the face; also, nerve that affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip; carries sensory data from the mandible.
A pathway used as an inter- mediate signal as part of the DNA signaling cascade.
Type of cell in various tissues that releases pharmacologi- cally active substances with a role in inflammation.
A protein that initiates part of the cellular division known as mitosis. Specifically, it initiates the prophase of mitosis and also functions in the process of mitosis by activating other proteins through the mechanism of phosphorylation, that is, it adds phosphorus to the protein, thereby making it an active protein.
A branch of the trigeminal nerve (fifth cranial nerve) the carries sensory data from the maxilla; supplies the upper part of the face.
Circular or ovoid structures with a distinct connective tissue capsule that transmit touch, pressure, and cold.
Cells that produce pigment granules/melanin in the basal layer of the epidermis.
A hormone that stimulates melanocytes to make melanin.
The process of making the pigment melanin inside the melanocyte.
Pigment granules of melanocyte cells that produce melanin in the basal layer; provides skin's colors.
In living organisms, a phospholipid bilayer impregnated with protein and certain other compounds that is differentially permeable.
Programmed to recognize and respond to a pathogen once it has been invaded and been repelled.
See hederi; form endings.
Embryonic connective tissue
The third germ layer, formed in the gastrula between the ectoderm and endoderm; gives rise to connective tissues, muscle, urogenital and vascular systems, and the peritoneum. This tissue from the mesoderm is called mesochymal tissue.
Rate at which a body burns up fuel and transforms it into energy.
Facial exfoliation procedure in which the top layer of skin is abraded away with ultrafine crystals of aluminum oxide or other ingredients. Microdermabrasion improves and smoothes the skin's surface and can minimize imperfections like blemishes, fine lines, and signs of sun damage.
Protein strands made of actin; responsible for cell movement and cell shape.
Tiny, cylindrical- shaped tubes composed of a protein called tubulin; its major function is to separate chromosomes during cellular division.
In eucaryotes, sub- cellular organelles that conduct cellular respiration and produce most of the ATP in aerobic respiration (oxidative phosphorylation).
Nuclear cells dividing of a cell into two new cells called daughter cells; the usual process of cell production of human tissues.
Large white blood cells or leukocytes, which travel the bloodstream neutralizing pathogens; become phagocytic cells (macro- phages) after moving into tissues.
A cell capable of multiple divisions, also known as a stem cell.
A neuron or nerve that carries an impulse away from the brain or spinal cord to the muscles and organs.
Membrane-lining passages and cavities communicating with the air. Consists of a surface layer of epithelium, a basement membrane, and an underlying layer of connective tissue. Mucus-secreting cells or glands usually are present in the epithelium but may be absent.
Tissue that is able to contract and conduct electrical impulses.
Fatty material forming the medul- lary sheath of nerve fibers.
enzyme used in the killing action of neutrophiles.
a large protein of contractile tissue that forms the thick myofilaments of striated muscle. During contraction, it combines with actin to form actomyosin.
A highly specialized tissue used to transport signals to other organs and coordinate all bodily functions.
Early nerve tissue in the embryo.
A layer of the ectoderm germ layer; provides most of the central nervous system.
An intermediate filament found in nerve cells.
Glial cells provide support and nutrition to the tissues.
A nerve cell; basic unit of the nervous system, consisting of a cell body, nucleus, dendrites, and axon.
1. Most abundant of polymorphonuclear leukocytes; an important phagocyte; so-called because it stains with both acidic and basic. 2. phagocytic white blood cells.
Membrane surrounding the nucleus of eucaryotic cells.
a deeply stain- ing body within the nucleus of a cell and containing RNA; nucleoli (plural) are specialized portions of certain chromosomes that carry multiple copies of the information to synthesize ribosomal RNA.
The dense, active pro- toplasm found in the center of a eukaryotic cell that acts as the genetic control center; plays an important role in cell reproduction and metabolism.
An agency responsible for workplace safety and health.
A branch of the trigeminal nerve that carries only sensory fibers; supplies the skin of the forehead, upper eyelids, and interior portion of the scalp, orbit, eyeball, and nasal passage.
A body within the cyto- plasm of eukaryotic cells. There are several different types of organ- elles, each with a specialized function, such as the chloroplast, which functions in photosynthesis.
Food produced with the exclusive use of feed or fertilizer of plant or animal origin and without the use of chemicals in any fashion, including growth hormones, pesticides, fertilizers.
Any living thing, plant, or animal. May be unicellular (bacteria, yeasts, protozoa) or multicellular (all complex organisms including man).
human body fluids including, but not limited to, semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, amniotic fluid, and all body fluids in situations where it is difficult or impossible to differentiate between body fluids.
Treatment that involves oxygen and other nutrients being applied or sprayed onto the face. Said to reduce the signs of aging.
Elastin-type fiber found in the dermis that contains only microfibrils and is 10–12nm in diameter.
A protein that binds to cyclin and CdK blocking entry into the S phase.
A tumor-suppressor protein with critical functions in normal cells. A mutation in the gene that encodes it, p53, can result in loss of control over cell division and, thus, cancer.
A sensory receptor in skin, muscles, body joints, body organs, and tendons that is involved with the vibratory sense and firm pressure on the skin; also called a lamellated corpuscle.
Heated paraffin wax is brushed over the body to soothe muscles and, by drawing out the dirt, removing the dead skin, and drawing out perspiration through the head, leave skin clean and soft.
A major functional division of the autonomic nervous system. It operates under normal nonstressful situations, such as resting, and helps to restore calm and balance to the body after a stressful event.
Also known as PETA. Preferred cosmetics, such as jane iredale®, utilize NO ANIMAL TESTING for the production and/or testing of their products, and are labeled cruelty-free to animals.
A microorganism or sub- stance capable of producing disease.
Specialized clothing or equipment designed for use by an employee in order to minimize, reduce, or eliminate the risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens and other hazards. Examples include, but are not limited to, disposable latex or nitrile exam gloves, disposable sleeves, disposable aprons, and face and eye protection.
Any cell that engulfs and devours microorganisms or other particles (process known as phagocytosis).
Compounds that contain fatty acid and phosphoric acid groups.
One of the two proteins that make up the plaques in the cell membrane.
Located in the cell membrane; made up of two proteins: desmoplakin and plakoglobin.
See cellular membrane.
Growth regulatory cytokines thought to be responsible for initiating proliferation of fibroblasts and other connective tissue cells.
At the start of the blood cell line, this cell is programmed to form all the other cells in the blood stream.
Part of the blood cell line and formed from the basophilic normoblast, this cell (9 to 12 microns diameter) starts to make hemoglobin, but can no longer divide.
Prenatal massage is massage therapy that is especially tailored to an expectant mother's demands. Prenatal massage is different from a regular massage because it demands that a new mother's body has to be positioned as well as supported in the right way; this is achieved by utilizing pillows and some padding.
An inactive form of chymotropic enzyme found in the lamellar bodies of the stratum granulosum.
Part of the blood cell line, formed from the division of the hemocytoblast, this cell (20 microns) continues to divide and forms the basophilic normoblasts.
chains of amino acid molecules used in cell functions and body growth; a macromolecule of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, and at times, sulfur and phosphorus.
A complex enzyme that catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues. There are 91 of identified PTK enzymes which are involved in cellular signaling pathways, regulate key cell functions such as proliferation, differentiation, anti- apoptotic signaling and neurite outgrowth. Unregulated activation of these enzymes, through mechanisms such as point mutations or over-expression, can lead to various forms of cancer as well as benign proliferative conditions. The importance of PTKs in health and disease is further underscored by the existence of aberrations in PTK signaling occurring in inflammatory diseases and diabetes. In short, this is a very important enzyme that activates other enzymes.
A special class of glycoprotiens found in the extracellular substance. They vary in size depending on the glycosaminogly- can chains attached to them.
The act of breaking the desmosomal bonds of connecting proteins.
A special protein on a cells surface or within the cell that binds to specific ligands.
A protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response.
Critical to the auto- nomic nervous system (ANS), there are two parts of the reflex arc: the sensory (afferent) arm and the motor (efferent or effector) arm.
Introduced as zone therapy to the West in 1913 by Dr. William Fitzgerald, reflexology is based on ancient techniques that use pressure-point massage, usually on the feet but also on the hands and ears, to restore the flow of energy throughout the body. Practitioners believe that areas on feet and hands correspond to other areas throughout the body. Used to relieve symptoms of such conditions as back pain, migraines, arthritis, sleep disorders, injuries, and stress.
Process that uses oxygen in the killing action of neutrophils.
Part of the blood cell line, formed from the acidophilic normoblast,this cell (8 microns in diameter) contains mitochondria.
Small dense organelles that assemble proteins in cells.
Common facial skin disorder characterized by redness on the cheeks, nose, chin, or forehead; small visible blood vessels on the face, bumps, or pimples, and water or irritated eyes that usually affects people over 30.
The ability of the plasma membrane to let some substances in and keep others out; permeable to small molecules, usually H2O, O2, and CO2, but not per- meable to larger molecules or ions.
A plan for avoiding potential exposure to contaminated fluids and for dealing with it should exposure occur.
Medicinal herb taken in tablet, brewed as tea, or used as ointment believed by some to relieve mild to moderate depression. May be counter-indicated for anyone on antidepressant medication or who is photosensitive or allergic.
Body treatment using concentrated seawater and seaweed that contains nutrients including minerals, rare trace elements, vitamins, and proteins. Said by proponents to detoxify, increase circulation, and improve appearance of cellulite.
A cell arrested in G1 that cannot advance or go backward and in some cases is destroyed; a major cause of aging.
Nerve that carries impulses or mes- sages from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure are experienced.
Any object that can penetrate the skin, including, but not limited to, needles, razors, scissors, and broken glass.
Term originally meaning “health through water.” Today it most often refers to day spas or destination spas, where clients can find a wide range of treatments.
Water treatments provided in a spa.
Reproductive cells, usually unicellular, produced by plants and some protozoa. Bacterial spores are difficult to destroy because high temperatures are required to destroy them, and they are very resistant to heat.
Indoor cycling on stationary bikes that allow riders to adjust resistance to make pedaling easier or harder. Class instructors guide students through a virtual hilly course and cue students about adjusting resistance.
A widely recognized and utilized method of infection control. Under Standard Precautions all blood, other body fluids, secretions, excretions (except sweat), non-intact skin, mucous membranes, dried blood, saliva, and any other body substance are considered contaminated and/or infectious.
A cell capable of multiple divisions, also known as the mother cell.
The act of using a physical or chemical procedure to destroy all forms of microbial life, including highly resistant bacterial spores.
An unstable, reactive single oxygen atom.
Inhibits the pro- duction of cytotoxic cells once they are no longer needed so they do not cause more damage than necessary.
Classical European massage technique manipulating muscles with the use of massage oils and five different movements: long strokes, kneading, tapping, friction, and vibration. Used to soothe tense muscles, increase circulation and flexibility, and de-stress.
The part of the autonomic nervous system which is stimulated by activity and prepares the body for stressful situations, such as running from a dangerous situation or competing in a sports event.
Type of lymphocyte with a vital regulatory role in immune response; so called because they are processed through the thymus. Subsets of T cells may be stimulatory or inhibitory. They communicate with other cells by protein hormones called cytokines.
Fragments produced by damaged DNA, triggering release of MSH, which can then bind to melanocytes to produce melanin.
Region of actual fusion of cell membranes between two adjacent cells.
The time it takes for cells to move through the epidermal stages of growth.
The main sensory nerve of the face having three major branches.
An infectious disease, chronic in nature and capable of affecting the lungs, although it may occur in almost any part of the body. The causative agent is mycobacterium tuberculosis (the tubercle bacillus). The most common mode of transmission is the inhalation of infected droplet nuclei.
A protein that forms parts of the microtubules.
An agency charged with protecting human health as well as air, water, and land.
An agency responsible for safety regulation of foods, dietary supplements, medical related items, veterinary items and cosmetics.
Membrane-bound compartments within some eukaryotic cells that can serve a variety of secretory, excretory, and storage functions.
Vegetarian who eats no dairy products or any other food derived from animals.
One who eats only fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, and sometimes eggs or dairy products.
A proteoglycan found in the dermis, provides the turgor and tautness to the skin by interacting with the elastin and the hyaluronic acid.
An intermediate filament found in fibroblasts.
Depilation process that involves application of warm wax followed by a strip of cloth quickly pulled away from skin to remove unwanted hair.
Use of free weights or weight machines in a series of repetitive exercises meant both to tone the body and add or replace lean muscle mass and also to raise metabolism.
An individual's state of being that signifies positive health and quality of life, including physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional components.
(leukocyte) Blood cells responsible for the body’s defense mechanisms. They act by destroying disease-causing germs. Also called white corpuscles or leukocytes.
Ancient art and philosophy that involves both mind and body and is aimed at self-development and self-realization. The physical practice of yoga involves performing postures (asanas) and using controlled breathing and meditation to stretch and tone the body and improve circulation.
Japanese teaching with origins in ancient China whose belief is that the only path to enlightenment is through direct, intuitive insight-by focusing solely on your essential nature.
Diploid cell produced by the fusion of an egg and sperm; fertilized egg cell.